Bone grafts acts as a framework facilitating and inducing the generation of new bone. It acts as a mineral reservoir and has no antigen-antibody reaction. It is a procedure that utilizes either a natural or synthetic substitute for replacing the resorbed or lost bone. On the basis of materials used in bone grafting, it can be classified as follows.
Allograft-based bone graft involves taking tissue from one individual to another individual of the same species. Factor-based bone graft they are natural growth factors used alone or in combination with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factors (FGF), and bone morphogenic protein (BMP). Cell-based bone grafts use cells to generate new tissue alone or can be added to a support matrix, like mesenchymal stem cells.
Ceramic-based bone graft substitutes including calcium phosphate & calcium sulfate can be used alone or in combination. Polymer-based bone grafts use degradable and nondegradable polymers alone or in combination with other materials.